This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons.
Philosophical intuition[ edit ] Bernard Williams presents a thought experiment appealing to the intuitions about what it is to be the same person in the future. For the first approach Williams suggests that suppose that there is some process by which subjecting two persons to it can result in the two persons have " exchanged " bodies.
The process has put into the body of person B the memoriesbehavioral dispositionsand psychological characteristics of the person who prior to undergoing the process belonged to person A ; and conversely with person B.
To show this one is to suppose that before undergoing the process person A and B are asked to which resulting person, A-Body-Person or B-Body-Person, they wish to receive a punishment and which a reward.
Upon undergoing the process and receiving either the punishment or reward, it appears to that A-Body-Person expresses the memories of choosing who gets which treatment as if that person was person B; conversely with B-Body-Person. This sort of approach to the thought experiment appears to show that since the person who expresses the psychological characteristics of person A to be person A, then intuition is that psychological continuity is the criterion for personal identity.
The second approach is to suppose that someone is told that one will have memories erased and then one will be tortured. Does one need to be afraid of being tortured? The intuition is that people will be afraid of being tortured, since it will still be one despite not having one's memories.
Next, Williams asked one to consider several similar scenarios. However, the last scenario is an identical scenario to the one in the first scenario. To resolve this conflict Williams feels one's intuition in the second approach is stronger and if he was given the choice of distributing a punishment and a reward he would want his body-person to receive the reward and the other body-person to receive the punishment, even if that other body-person has his memories.
Psychological continuity[ edit ] In psychologypersonal continuity, also called personal persistence or self-continuity, is the uninterrupted connection concerning a particular person of his or her private life and personality.
Personal continuity is the union affecting the facets arising from personality in order to avoid discontinuities from one moment of time to another time. Personal continuity is the property of a continuous and connected period of time   and is intimately related to do with a person's body or physical being in a single four-dimensional continuum.
Associations can result from contiguitysimilarity, or contrast.
Through contiguity, one associates ideas or events that usually happen to occur at the same time. Some of these events form an autobiographical memory in which each is a personal representation of the general or specific events and personal facts.
Ego integrity is the psychological concept of the ego 's accumulated assurance of its capacity for order and meaning.
Ego identity is the accrued confidence that the inner sameness and continuity prepared in the past are matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others, as evidenced in the promise of a career.
Body and ego control organ expressions. For John Noon, David Hume undertook looking at the mind—body problem. Hume also investigated a person's character, the relationship between human and animal nature, and the nature of agency. Hume pointed out that we tend to think that we are the same person we were five years ago.
Though we've changed in many respects, the same person appears present as was present then. We might start thinking about which features can be changed without changing the underlying self. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features.
When we start introspecting, "we are never intimately conscious of anything but a particular perception; man is a bundle or collection of different perceptions which succeed one another with an inconceivable rapidity and are in perpetual flux and movement".
It is likewise evident that as the senses, in changing their objects, are necessitated to change them regularly, and take them as they lie contiguous to each other, the imagination must by long custom acquire the same method of thinking, and run along the parts of space and time in conceiving its objects.
Hume, similar to the Buddha compares the soul to a commonwealthwhich retains its identity not by virtue of some enduring core substance, but by being composed of many different, related, and yet constantly changing elements.
The question of personal identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the loose cohesion [o] of one's personal experience.
Critics of Hume state in order for the various states and processes of the mind to seem unified, there must be something which perceives their unity, the existence of which would be no less mysterious than a personal identity.Apr 18, · Who are you?
And how do you know?
And what makes it so? We explore the question of what makes you you over time. Metaphysics Playlist: rutadeltambor.com In the modern philosophy of mind, this concept of personal identity is sometimes referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity.
The synchronic problem is grounded in the question of what features or traits characterise a given person at one time. Personal identity is the concept you develop about yourself that evolves over the course of your life.
This may include aspects of your life that you have no control over, such as where you grew. journal of Philosophy, LXIV (i); and R. Chisholm S. Shoemaker in "The Loose and Popular and the Strict and the Philosophical Senses of Identity," in Perception .
In philosophy, identity, from Latin: identitas ("sameness"), is the relation each thing bears only to itself. The notion of identity gives rise to many philosophical problems, including the identity of indiscernibles (if x and y share all their properties, are they one and the same thing?), and questions about change and personal identity over time (what has to be the case for a person x at.
Personal Identity. What does being the person that you are, from one day to the next, necessarily consist in? This is the question of personal identity, and it is literally a question of life and death, as the correct answer to it determines which types of changes a person can undergo without ceasing to exist.