Many of the leadership studies conducted in the s at the University of Michigan and the Ohio State University focused on these two dimensions. Building on the work of the researchers at these Universities, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton s proposed a graphic portrayal of leadership styles through a managerial grid sometimes called leadership grid. The five resulting leadership styles are as follows:
Internal factors[ edit ] Internal company factors that determine a management style include, but are not limited to, policies, priorities, and corporate culture, staff skill levels and motivation, and management structures. Their style must adhere to the policies and procedures set forth by the organization, and they must be able to achieve company objectives.
They are responsible for controlling an effective work team and must uphold organizational beliefs within that team. A manager who cannot do this would likely be deemed ineffective and removed from the position. Less skilled or motivated employees would require a style that is more controlling and fosters consistent supervision to ensure productivity.
Highly motivated or skilled employees require less supervision and direction as they are typically more technically skilled than management and have the ability, and desire, to make more autonomous decisions.
These employees would benefit from a management style that is less controlling or hands-off. These types of organizations require more controlling management styles in order to meet objectives and get things done as specified.
External factors[ edit ] External factors affecting management styles are those that are outside of the control of the organization. These include, but are not limited to consumers, suppliers, competitors, the economy, and the law. Theory X proposes that people inherently lack the motivation and desire for responsibility and need to be closely supervised, directed, and tightly controlled in order to achieve team objectives.
This is considered the more conventional theory and results in management styles that have high degrees of control over employees. Theory Y conversely suggests that it is human nature to be motivated by objectives and gain satisfaction through the completion of work.
Types of management styles[ edit ] All management styles can be categorized by three major types: Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire, with Autocratic being the most controlling and Laissez-Faire being the least controlling.
Variations of this style are authoritative, persuasive, and paternalistic. Autocratic managers make all of the decisions in the workplace. Communication with this type of management is one way, top-down to the employees. Employee ideas and contributions are not encouraged or necessary.
Employees that benefit from this style of management include those who are new, unskilled, or unmotivated, as they need the supervision and clear direction.
Managers can benefit greatly from using this style in times of crises or serious time constraints.
Decision-making speed is ideal and is not slowed by conflicting thought or agendas. Disadvantages include lack of staff input with ideas are not encouraged or shared.
This can lead to job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and employee turnover. Because managers make all of the decisions, the employees is not inclined to act autonomously and may become too dependent on the manager. Not all employees want or need supervision, and as a result can become resentful and unhappy.
This manager dictates orders to employees and expect that they do exactly as required. These employees are unskilled. This requires constant teaching and coaching of the staff as well as consistent supervision.
The only real difference here is that it can establish a higher level of trust between management and staff.Robert Blake and Jane Mouton proposed a graphic portrayal of leadership styles through a managerial grid.
The grid depicted two dimensions of leader behavior - concern for . Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking. This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life.
Tips. All leadership styles can become part of the leader's repertoire. Leadership styles should be adapted to the demands of the situation, the requirements of the people involved and the challenges facing the organization. Cultural Information - Communication Styles Question: What do I need to know about verbal and non-verbal communications?
Local Perspective: There is a huge difference between people who studied, lived or worked in the main cities such as Kabul, Mazar, Jalalabad, Herat and those who were raised and lived in the rural areas or some of the provinces such as Kandahar, Paktia, Uruzgan, Logar or Ghazni.
Management styles vary from individual to individual, by institution, and what industry is involved. For example, the music or entertainment industry, with its glitzy and glamorous lifestyles, may differ markedly from a marketing and advertising agency! Style #1 Directive Management Style Other terms for this management style are Coercive and Autocratic.
This is characterized by a top-down decision-making process, where the decision is made from the top, and all the others below are expected to fall in line and follow.