While device shrinkage can reduce some parasitic capacitances, the number of devices on an integrated-circuit chip has increased more than enough to compensate for reduced capacitance in each individual device.
Communication employing 4-mA-tomA analog current signals to carry data and settings over wires has long been in widespread use.
Simply put, dc and low-frequency current signals are modulated by independent, higher-frequency signals that switch between a pair of frequencies Figure 1 —a technique known as frequency-shift keying FSK. The primary form of communication used in analog transmitters is a current loop with a normal range of 4 mA to 20 mA, employing a transmitter, a receiver, and a Low power supply.
It enables features such as remote calibration, fault interrogation, and transmission of process variable data.
These current loops are reliable, robust, and highly immune to environmental interference over long communication distances. A significant disadvantage, however, is that a single loop allows only one-way communication from a sensor, or Low power an actuator, and can only transmit one process variable.
A 4-mA-tomA analog current is modulated by a 1-mA peak-to-peak FSK signal—without interrupting the original primary variable transmission—while still leaving headroom for operating the loop. The HART protocol has become the global standard for sending and receiving digital information over analog wires between smart devices and a control or monitoring system.
Block diagram of the AD; the -1 option includes an internal 0. Transmit Path Figure 2 shows the main blocks involved in the modulation: The digital data to be transmitted arrives via the UART.
The modulator is enabled by bringing the RTS request to send signal low. The DDS produces a stream of sinusoidal digital words at either frequency, and the DAC converts it to an approximately mV p-p analog sine wave. The DDS engine inherently generates continuous phase signals, thus avoiding any output discontinuity when switching between frequencies.
A high on CD carrier detect indicates that a valid carrier is detected. The receive architecture was chosen to make the AD robust against noise and interferers in harsh industrial environments. A combination of analog and digital filtering results in excellent sensitivity and a highly accurate output on the RXD pin.
In demodulation mode, the modem has two filter configuration options: The external filter mode supports the use of the AD in explosion-proof and intrinsically safe environments. This option is recommended for operation in safety-critical applications, where the modem must be isolated from the high voltage of the loop supply.
In this case, the input has higher transient voltage protection and should, therefore, not require additional protection circuitry, even in the most demanding of industrial environments.
Additional Blocks The three remaining blocks shown in Figure 2 are the previously mentioned UART interface, the internal reference, and the oscillator.
The AD can accept an external 2. For clocking, the device supports numerous schemes to allow a simple low-cost configurable solution. The many functions integrated on-chip greatly simplify the design of HART-compatible systems, resulting in more reliable, cost-effective, and robust networked solutions.Low-power broadcasting refers to a broadcast station operating at a low electrical power to a smaller service area than "full power" stations within the same region, but often distinguished from "micropower broadcasting" (more commonly "microbroadcasting") and broadcast translators.
This project is a solution to power up most of devices or projects requiring dual (+/-) adjustable power supply. The circuit is based on LM positive and LM negative voltage regulators. MSP bit microcontrollers are ultra-low-power RISC mixed-signal MCUs with integrated analog and peripherals for sensing and measurement applications.
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