However, the law of mass action is valid only for concerted one-step reactions that proceed through a single transition state and is not valid in general because rate equations do not, in general, follow the stoichiometry of the reaction as Guldberg and Waage had proposed see, for example, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution by SN1 or reaction of hydrogen and bromine to form hydrogen bromide. Equality of forward and backward reaction rates, however, is a necessary condition for chemical equilibrium, though it is not sufficient to explain why equilibrium occurs. Despite the failure of this derivation, the equilibrium constant for a reaction is indeed a constant, independent of the activities of the various species involved, though it does depend on temperature as observed by the van 't Hoff equation. Adding a catalyst will affect both the forward reaction and the reverse reaction in the same way and will not have an effect on the equilibrium constant.
Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum. Pakistan This is how to write acid ionization constant expression entry for the country's name. For further information about the country, see the. To be more precise, it was divinely inspired.
To quote the inspiree: I observed chillahs and prayed for Allah's guidance. According to a interview with his generally admiring former secretary, Miss Frosthe was led to the name while riding on the top of a London bus.
It was evidently no pedestrian epiphany. The word first appeared in a four-page leaflet entitled Now or Never, published January 28, The leaflet was signed by Rahmat Ali and three fellow students at Cambridge University. That leaflet used the form Pakstan no letter i and implied an expansion: At this solemn hour in the history of Indiawhen British and Indian statesmen are laying the foundations of a Federal Constitution for that land, we address this appeal to you, in the name of our common heritage, on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN - by which we mean the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province Afghan ProvinceKashmir, Sind and Baluchistan - for your sympathy and support in our grim and fateful struggle against political crucifixion and complete annihilation.
The Pak National Liberation Movement. I bet that glitch was the work of a saboteur from a large country on the Indian subcontinent, nudge, nudge, wink, wink.
We must remain vigilant and preserve military parity! As I was writing, on page of the latter work, Rahmat Ali made the etymological testament quoted earlier, and gave the following detailed explanation and expansion: It means the lands of the Paks--the spiritually pure and clean.
It symbolizes the religious beliefs and the ethnical stocks of our people; and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland. It has no other origin and no other meaning; and it does not admit of any other interpretation. Oh well, a little bit of inconsistency to spice the pot.
I haven't yet been able to get my hands on the cited source. The above is cribbed from Khalid B. That edition covered the longer periodbut the later version has added material. For Urdu I cite William E. Basic Urdu and English Wordbook The Urdu there is written in LRU script, q.
For Persian I have the authority of A. Librairie du Liban,where it is the second translation offered for pur. A more compendious source is F.
Librairie du Liban, Given its repeated appearance, I'll mention that according to its colophon, Librairie du Liban was founded in Librairie is a faux ami. The volume cited is a reimpression of Steingass's first edition. One example is the DGEa Greek - Spanish dictionary under construction at the turn of the twenty-first century, based on but considerably improving upon the LSJan early twentieth-century revision of a nineteenth-century Greek-English dictionary, which in turn was based on the Greek-German lexicon of Franz Passow first editionbased in turn on the Greek-German lexicon of Johann Gottlob Schneider first edition Anyway, the point of bringing up this dictionary here is that on page it gives a pretty good sense of the semantic range of pak in Persian.
The suffix -stan is productive in Persian and many nearby languages that Persian has influenced some of these languages are Indo-European like Persian, and some are not ; a vowel is often inserted to avoid uncomfortable consonant clusters.
A related fact of some relevance: In Semitic languages, this sort of matres lectionis is generally enough to disambiguate the pronunciation, since the languages are built up out of consonantal roots with vowels determined grammatically and therefore usually inferable semantically.
And you thought English was crazy. Imagine if every spelling were as ambiguous as read or read, and most of the letters looked alike. Persian manages using an Arabic script with the addition of four consonants for sounds not present in Arabic.
Baluchi or Balochi was considered a dialect of Persian i. Urdu is also written in Arabic characters. However, the partition left the largest number of subcontinent Muslims, and particularly of Urdu speakers, in the new country of India.Chapter VI A dissertation on the art of flying.
Among the artists that had been allured into the happy valley, to labour for the accommodation and pleasure of its inhabitants, was a man eminent for his knowledge of the mechanick powers, who had contrived many engines both of use and recreation.
Triprotic Acid Titration with Strong Base. The acid dissociation constants for phosphoric acid are quite different from each other with pK a 's of , the third equivalence is obscured by competitive ionization of water.
This is the same effect that occurs for monoprotic acid with pK a > In order to write the equilibrium expression for a system in a state of equilibrium you need to know: the balanced equation for the reaction the phases (solid, liquid, gas, .
Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Usually, this state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction. Acid-Base Titrations Titration: reaction of an acid with a base (neutralization) Specifically, the addition of a solution of accurately known concentration (e.g.
acid) to a solution of unknown concentration (e.g. base) until the reaction is rutadeltambor.com the known concentration, the concentration of the other.