The Revenue Act of was passed as an emergency and temporary war-time tax. It copied a relatively new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation. The first income tax was passed in
History[ edit ] The classical era[ edit ] The study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greeceat the time of Hippocrates late 5th century BC.
Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: Hippocrates also noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudius Galenus would later expand on.
The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which also consisted of four primary qualities in life: Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body.
Galen also played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were also tied to the humours, and added the notion of temperaments: Galen also saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: In the same year, Charles Bell finished work on what would later become known as the Bell-Magendie lawwhich compared functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord.
In the s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man. He later discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreased death rate from surgery by a substantial amount.
The Society is, "devoted to fostering education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences.
It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard 's — further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur internal environment  which would later be taken up and championed as " homeostasis " by American physiologist Walter B.
By homeostasis, Cannon meant "the maintenance of steady states in the body and the physiological processes through which they are regulated.
William Beaumont was the first American to utilize the practical application of physiology. Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael FosterMax Verwornand Alfred Binetbased on Haeckel 's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions,  later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.
Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline. List of physiologists Women in physiology[ edit ] Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The American Physiological Societyfor example, was founded in and included only men in its ranks.
Soon thereafter, inJ. Haldane proposed that women be allowed to formally join The Physiological Societywhich had been founded in Convention Workshops. Enhance your CEC professional development experience with a workshop focusing on important topics. Earn Professional Development Hours (PDHs) too!
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed.
The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The purpose of this page is to provide resources in the rapidly growing area of computer-based statistical data analysis.
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