This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss.
Prolonged imbibed storage may, however, be difficult in practice, because of the need to maintain constant high moisture for imbibition and adequate oxygen without allowing the seeds to germinate or encouraging the multiplication of fungi and bacteria Roberts Moisture content is also important in recalcitrant seeds, but in this case the critical MC is the minimum to which it is allowable to dry the seeds rather than the maximum content for prolonged storage.
Storage should be carried out at close to the minimum safe MC, since the higher the MC the higher the respiration rate and the more rapid the loss of viability. Higher respiration rates release higher amounts of energy and there is a risk of overheating and death of the seed, unless great care is taken to provide adequate aeration.
High MC also increases fungal activity and the spread of rot. Loss of viability in this species may be sudden. Less research has been done on tropical recalcitrant species, but there is some evidence e. On the basis of experiments carried out on Shorea parvifolia and Dipterocarpus humeratus, Maury-Lechon et al.
Although tropical recalcitrant seeds cannot yet be stored for more than short periods, there is a growing body of useful research on the problem.
King and Roberts contains a good summary of achievements and possible approaches. Storage temperature Temperature, like moisture content, is negatively correlated with seed longevity; the lower the temperature the lower the rate of respiration and thus the longer the life-span of the seed in storage.
For orthodox seeds, which can be dried to a low moisture content, still greater longevity can be assured by storage at sub-freezing temperatures. Much lower temperatures have been used with success on an experimental basis, e. Choice of storage temperature varies considerably according to species and the period for which the seed is to be stored.
The lower the temperature that has to be maintained in a cold store, the higher the cost, and provision of subfreezing temperatures may be unnecessary if seed is to be stored for only a year or two for afforestation projects.
Holmes and Buszewicz noted that, in a number of experiments on conifers, the superiority of sub-freezing temperatures became evident only after prolonged storage over periods of about 5 years or more.
Some seeds keep well at room temperature, e. Most species, however, only keep well for longer periods at lower temperatures. Temperature and moisture factors are so interrelated that it is very difficult to separate them.
In short, it can be said that the critical moisture content lies at a higher level when storage temperatures are low than when they are intermediate or high, i. Holmes and Buszewicz It is, however, necessary to avoid any risk of freezing damage caused by ice formation in seeds of high MC.
As mentioned in Chapter 6, the equilibrium moisture content of many seeds at a given RH varies with temperature. Species included Pinus as well as several agricultural crops. Change of equilibrium moisture content with change of temperature can be of importance in open storage.
In sealed containers the effect is minimal because the final EMC is dominated by the initial MC of the seeds and not the moisture of the enclosed air. As with moisture content, repeated fluctuations in temperature lead to loss of viability.
As far as possible, temperature should be maintained at a uniform level. The effect of temperature on seed longevity of temperate recalcitrant species is similar to that of orthodox species - within certain limits the lower the temperature the longer the period of viability. Some tropical species are killed by temperatures above freezing e.
Other species of dipterocarp have a much shorter seed life. Below-freezing temperatures, on the other hand, often kill recalcitrant seeds which need to be stored at a high moisture content HarringtonWang Light Light, particularly ultra-violet light, is reported to be harmful to seed Harringtonbut very few studies have been made.
Use of opaque metal containers would be preferable to glass jars or bottles for species which are affected by light. But light appears to be much less important than either moisture content or temperature. Choice of Storage Method A number of different storage methods are available, as described below.
The main factors affecting choice are the seed characteristics of the species in question, the period for which it is to be stored and the cost.
If more than one method is suitable to maintain viability for the required period, the simplest and cheapest will normally be chosen. Storage at ambient temperature and humidity Seeds can be stored in piles, single layers, sacks or open containers, under shelter against rain, well ventilated and protected against rodents Holmes and BuszewiczMaginiStein et al.
Best results are obtained in cool, dry climates.
In these conditions several species of Pinus, Eucalyptus Pseudotsuga and Tectona will store satisfactorily for at least six months, while leguminous trees with impermeable seedcoats and naturally low MC, e.Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
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